SELF-STUDY MEDICAL ENGLISH ON THE BASIS OF 1H5W PRINCIPLE
Võ Văn Quang
Medical College of Quang Nam
Nguyễn Phước Vĩnh Cố
University of Google
1. 1 Some remarks on medical English given by linguists:
– ‘Learning medical English is like learning a new language’ (Chabner).
– ‘Anyone who comes across complex medical terms for the first time is likely to be ‘utterly perplexed’ (Ralph Rickards).
– ‘Medical terms may seem very complicated at first glance’ (J Patrik Fisher and Nancy P. Hutzell).
1. 2 1H5W principle is used as a key to solving this problem
A simple set of question framings was defined by Kipling in his immortal poem:
I have six faithful serving men
They taught me all I knew
Their names are What and Where and When
And Why and How and Who
They are also known by ‘5W1H’ principle and are useful for general questioning and probing. Here are some questions:
1. 3 The 1H5W principle can be used as a key to solving this problem
– What ?
What do we need to learn first as a basis for medical English?
What linguistic features will be needed and how will they be described?
What topic areas will need to be covered?
Why must learners learn basic things such as ‘roots’, ‘prefixes’, ‘suffixes’ in medical English?
Why is it important to learn the roots, suffixes and prefixes of medical terms?
Why is learning medical terminology important?
Who do they study medical English with ?, location? (network, club, at home …)?
How do medical students study (method, strategy …) to get a good result?
Who is going to be involved in this process (students/learrners, teachers …)?
When is the learning to take place? How will it be distributed?
Where is the learning to take place (network, club, at home …)?
Next, we will study these questions in more detail by looking them under 4 main headings.
– Characteristics of medical terminology
– Structure of a medical term.
– How to define a medical term.
– How to learn a medical term.
2. 1 Characteristics of a medical term
The most important characteristic of any fields of science and technology is the terminology system. The medical terminolog is usually of Greek or Latin origin. It is no wonder that the idiom ‘It’s all Greek to me’ (if taken literally) is sometimes used as an answer to the question of what is the meaning of ‘hysterosalpingo-oophorectomy’?.
2. 2 Structure of a medical terminology
However, we can divide the complex term like ‘otorhinolaryngology’ into simpler, smaller meaningful parts. Such parts include:
– The foundation for most medical terms.
– (Usually, but not always) indicating the part of the body that is involved.
– All medical terms have one or more roots.
The following are some common root words in the systems:
a. Cardiovascular system
b. Reproductive system
c. Nervous system
– a. Root words in the cardiovascular system
1. Cardi(o)- /kɑː(r)di(əʊ)/ /ˈkɑːdɪ(əʊ)/ : 1. Heart tim 2. Cardia Tâm vị
2. Cor(o)- /kɒr(əʊ)//coron(o)- /ˈkɒrən(əʊ)/: heart Tim
3. Ather(o)- /ˌæθəˈ(rəʊ)/: fatty substance Chất béo
4. Arteri(o)- /ɑːtəri(əʊ)/ : Artery /ˈɑːtəri/ Động mạch
5. Aort(o)- /eɪˈɔːt(əʊ)/: Aorta /eɪˈɔːtə/ Động mạch chủ
6. Atri(o)- /ˈeɪtr(əʊ)/: atrium /ˈeɪtriəm/ Tâm nhĩ
7. Phleb(o)- /fləˈb(əʊ)/[Gr]*: Vein Tĩnh mạch
5. Ven(o)- / ˈven(əʊ)/ [L]*: Vein Tĩnh mạch
6. Angi(o)- /ˈandʒɪ(əʊ)/[Gr]*: Vessel Mạch máu
7. Vas(o)- /vas(əʊ)/ [L]*: Vessel Mạch máu
8. H(a)emat(o) -/ˌhiːməˈt(əʊ)/hemo /ˌhiːm(əʊ)/ [Gr]*: Blood Máu/huyết
9. Sanguin(o)- /ˈsæŋɡwɪn(əʊ)/ [L]*: Blood Máu/huyết
10. Thromb(o)- /θrɒmˈb(əʊ)/: Blood clot Huyết khối
– b. Root words in the reproductive system
1. Salping(o) /sælˈpɪŋˌg(oʊ)/: Uterine/Fallopian tube Vòi tử cung, vòi trứng, vòi Fallope.
2. Oophor(o) /ˈoʊoʊfəˌr(oʊ)/ [Gr]: Ovary Buồng trứng
3. Ovari(o) /ˈəʊvəri(oʊ)/ [L]: Ovary Buồng trứng
4. Metr(o) /ˈmetr(oʊ)/ [L]: Womb Tử cung
5. Hyster(o) /ˌhɪstəˈr(oʊ)/ [Gr]: Womb Tử cung
6. Colp(o) /kɒlpə/ [Gr]: Vagina Âm đạo
7. Vagin(o) /vəˈdʒaɪn(oʊ) / [L]: Vagina Âm đạo
8. Vulv(o) /ˈvʌlv(oʊ)/ : vulva Âm hộ.
9. Amni(o) /ˈæmnɪ(əʊ)/: Amnion Màng ối
10. Cervic(o) /ˈsɜrvɪˌk(oʊ)/: Cervix, neck Cổ tử cung
* Gr = Greek, indicating roots of Greek origin
* L = Latin, indicating roots of Latin origin
– c. Root words in nervous system
1. Cerebr(o )- /ˌsɛrɪbr(əʊ)/: Cerebrum, brain Não
2. Crani(o)- /ˈkreɪnɪ(əʊ)/: Skull Sọ
3. Encephal(o)- /enˌsefəˈl(əʊ)/ : Brain Não
4. Mening(o)-/mening(əʊ)/: Meninges Màng não
5. Myel(o)- /ˈmaɪəl(əʊ)/: Bone marrow Tủy xương
6. Neur(o)- /njʊər(əʊ)/: Nerve Thần kinh
7. Phren(o)- /ˈfrɛn(əʊ)/: Mind Tâm trí, tinh thần
8. Psych(o)- /ˈsaɪk(əʊ)/: Mind Tâm trí, tinh thần
9. Radicul(o)- /ˌradɪkjʊˈl(əʊ)/: Nerve root Rễ thần kinh
10. Ventricul(o)- /ˈventrɪkjʊl(əʊ)/: Ventricle Não thất
– A suffix is always added at the end of a word to complete that term.
– Suffixes usually, but not always, indicate a procedure, condition, disorder, or disease.
Some suffixes meaning ‘condition’, ‘disorder’ or ‘disease’
1. -Algia /ældʒə/: Pain/ache Đau/sự khó chịu
2. -Asis, -Esis, -Osis: Condition/presence of Tình trạng bất thường/triệu chứng của bệnh
-Asis /əsɪs ; əsəs/
3. -Cele /siːl/: Hernia Thoát vị, lồi
4. -Dynia /dɪnɪə/: Pain Đau/sự khó chịu
5. -Itis /ˈaɪtɨs/: Inflammation Viêm
6. -Ectasis : /ˈɛktəsis/, ectasia /ˈɛktəsiə/: Dilatation/ˌdaɪləˈteɪʃn/, /ˌdɪləˈteɪʃn/, /expansion /ɪkˈspænʃn/: Giãn/phình
7. -Malacia /məˈleɪʃ(ɪ)ə/: Softening Chứng nhuyễn
8. -Pathy /-pəθi/: Disease Bệnh
9. -Megaly /mɛˈɡælɪ/: Enlargement Lớn bất thường/phì đại
10. -Plasia/ˈpleɪʒə/: Abnormal formation Thành lập, phát triển quá mức
Some suffixes related to surgical procedures
1. -Centesis /senˈtisəs /: Surgical puncture /ˈsɜː(r)dʒɪk(ə)l ˈpʌŋktʃə(r)/ Chọc/dò
2. -Desis /ˈdeɪsis/: Surgical binding /ˈbaɪndɪŋ/ Làm dính
3. -Pexy /ˈpeksi/: Surgical fixation /fɪkˈseɪʃ(ə)n/ Cố định
4. -Plasty /ˈplæstɪk/: Surgical repair /rɪˈpeə(r)/ Tạo hình/chỉnh hình
5. -Rrhaphy /rəfi/: Suture /ˈsuːtʃə(r)/ Khâu
6. -Ectomy /ˈɛktəmi/: Surgical removal /rɪˈmuːv(ə)l/ Cắt bỏ/lấy đi
7. -Tomy /təmi/: Cut/incision /ɪnˈsɪʒ(ə)n/ Cắt/mở
8. -Stomy /stəmi/: Artificial opening /ˌɑː(r)tɪˈfɪʃ(ə)l/ opening /ˈəʊp(ə)nɪŋ/ Mở thông/dẫn lưu
Some suffixes related to diagnoses
1. -Gram /ɡræm/ /ɡrɑːm/: Written/pictorial record Bản ghi, hình ghi/đồ
2. -Graph /ɡrɑːf/ /ɡræf/: Device for graphic/pictorial recording Dụng cụ dùng để ghi/ký
3. -Graphy /ɡrəfi/: An act of graphic/pictorial recording Phép ghi, kỹ thuật dùng để ghi
– A prefix is added to the beginning of a word to influence the meaning of that term.
– Prefixes usually, but not always, indicate a. time b. speed c. position d. size e. quantity
Prefixes of (time, speed, position, size and quantity.)
Prefixes of time
a. Ante- /ˈæntɪ ; ˈæntə / , pre- (priː/: Before trước
b. Post- /poʊst/: After sau
Prefixes of speed
a. Brady- /bradɪ/ : Slow chậm
b. Tachy- /takɪ/ : Quick nhanh
Prefixes of position
a. Exo- /ɛksoʊ-/ : Outside bên ngoài
b. En- /en-/ /endo- /ˌɛndəʊ /: Inside, within bên trong
Prefixes of size
a. Macro- /mækrəʊ/: Big lớn
b. Micro- /maɪkrəʊ/: Small nhỏ
Prefixes of quantity
a. Olig/olig( o)- /ˈɑlɪgoʊ/ : Few ít
b. Poly- /ˈpɒli/: Many nhiều
2.3 How to define a medical term
To define a medical term correctly, you actually start at the end. You should explain the suffix, then the prefix, and finally the root words and/or combining forms. Words can be analysed and divided into basic components. These components have a prefix (an affix occurring at the beginning of a word), a root (the foundation of a word), and a suffix (an affix occurring at the end of a word).
Take the term ‘hyperglycaemia’ as an example. The term ‘hyperglycaemia’ can be divided into the following parts, e.g ‘hyper.glyc.aemia’, the prefix is ‘hyper’, the root is ‘glyc’, and the suffix is ‘aemia’. After dividing the word into basic components, the definition can be gleaned by examing the suffix followed by the prefix and then the root(s). In the example of ‘‘hyper.glyc.aemia’, ‘-aemia’ is the suffix meaning ‘blood condition’, ‘hyper’ is the prefix meaning ‘excessive’, and ‘glyc’ is the root meaning ‘sugar’.
2.4 How to learn a medical term
To master this complex but interesting language, we, learners, make use of the appropriate learning resources and some valuable learning strategies such as ‘5W1H’ principle.
Make flash cards
Medical terminology is usually introduced within the context of a body system or medical specialty, so for each system make FLASH CARDS that can help us study. This repetitive study method will help you learn the medical terminology through visualization.
Use the Medical Dictionary
Using the medical dictionary e.g , Dorland will enlarge your vocabulary and make us have the understanding of the appropriate meanings and accurate use of medical terms. Look up each new word and see what language means and how it is pronounced.
Use the Internet
The Internet is also the place where online resources are available at the click. There are plenty of software applications for Android and iPhone smartphones that are designed exclusively for medical students to help them learn and practice medical English.
Understanding the features of the terminology of medical English (structure) is the initial but basic step to provide medical students with a passport (indispensable knowledge) to a ‘strange’ land (language of medicine). ‘Characteristic features of medical English given above, though useful and indespensable, is just a beginning step (discovery steps). To master medical English, what medical students need is ‘another step’ (consolidation steps): a method for terminology development with constant and hard practice. That is really your own STEP into the field of medical English.
Thạc gián, 11/12/2019