SỔ TAY NGƯỜI HỌC TIẾNG ANH PHÁP LÝ
Chương II: Thuật Ngữ Pháp Lý về Hình Phạt
Nguyễn Phước Vĩnh Cố
Tôn Nữ Thanh Thảo
Tôn Nữ Hải Anh
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Thuật Ngữ Pháp Lý về Hình Phạt
Danh từ: Hình phạt
– Punishment: Hình phạt
– Corporal/physical punishment: Nhục hình
– Capital punishment: Án tử hình
– Penalty: Hình phạt, tiền phạt
– Death penalty: Án tử hình
– Capital offence: Tội tử hình
– Penal servitude: Tội khổ sai
– Penal servitude for life: Tội khổ sai chung thân
– Hard labor (Mỹ), hard labour (Anh): Tội khổ sai
– Hard labour for life: Tội khổ sai chung thân
– Life (imprisonment): Tù chung thân
– Chastisement: Hình phạt nghiêm khắc
– Custody: Tạm giam
– Community service: Lao động công ích
– Detention: Sự giam giữ/cấm túc
– Fine: Tiền phạt
– House arrest: Quản thúc tại gia
– Apologising to the victim: Xin lỗi nạn nhân
– Loss of citizenship: Mất quyền công nhân
– Compensation or other reparations to the victim(s): Bồi thường thiệt hại cho nạn nhân
– Blocking/freezing access to bank account(s): Đóng băng tài khoản ngân hàng
Các ví dụ
– The punishment he suffered was terrible.
– What is the punishment for this crime?
– Corporal punishment can include beating a criminal.
– Capital punishment can be by hanging or shooting.
– The member states have reaffirmed the Union’s opposition to capital punishment.
– Murder used to be a capital offence in Britain.
– The murder was sentenced to penal servitude for eight years/for life.
– He was sentenced to 4 years’ hard labour.
– The sentence was life imprisonment.
– He was given life.
– Many people believe that capital punishment is a deterrent to murder.
– Chastisement is often not the best way to improve someone’s character.
– The fine for what he did was $20.
– She was placed under house arrest.
– Danh từ: Hình phạt thời phong kiến
– Nine familial exterminations: Tru di cữu tộc
– Execution by elephant: Voi giày
– Castration: Cung hình
– Lingchi/death by a thousand cuts: Tùng xẻo, lăng trì
– Dismemberment by 4 horses: Tứ mã phân/phanh thây
– Động từ: Hình phạt
– Punish: Phạt
– Penalize: Phạt
– Chasten: Trừng phạt (ai) để sửa chữa
– Chastise: Trừng phạt (ai) nghiêm khắc
– Persecute: Ngược đãi, khủng bố
– Victimize: Bắt nạt, trù dập
– Castigate: Chỉ trích hoặc trừng phạt (ai) nghiêm khắc
– Make an example of: Phạt (ai)
– Give (s.e) a lesson/ to (s.e):
– Serve one right (for doing sth): Đáng đời (ai) vì đã làm gì.
Các ví dụ
– Anyone who broke these rulers was severely punished.
– People who drive when they are drunk should be heavily penalized.
– 5 years in prison had not chastened him.
– The father chastised his wicked son with a whip.
– The Romans persecuted the early Christians, often causing them to be eaten by lions.
– Stop victimizing these men just because they tell the truth.
– He castigated himself for being so stupid.
– The judge decided to make an example of the young vandals and gave them each a year in prison.
– I’m going to teach him a lesson. He’ll never dare to talk to me like that!
– Left you, did she? It serves you right for being so selfish.
Động từ và danh từ: Hình phạt bằng roi, gậy
– Beat: Đánh nhiều lần bằng roi, gậy….
– Thrash: Đánh đòn, đánh đập
– Whip: Đánh người/vật bằng roi nhất là để trừng phạt
– Flog: Quất bằng roi
– Lash: Quất bằng roi
– Cane: Đánh (ai) bằng roi, gậy
Các ví dụ
– Beat him hard; he deserves to be punished.
– The man was beaten to death with heavy sticks.
– He gave the man a beating.
– They thrashed him until he could not stand.
– “That man deserves/ a whipping/to be whipped!” he said.
– Flog him! The sailor was flogged for not doing as he was told.
– They gave the prisoner 20 lashes.
– The teacher caned the boy.
Động từ và danh từ: Trục xuất
– Banish: Trục xuất, đày biệt xứ
– Banishment: Sự trục xuất
– Exile (v & n): Đày ải (ai)/cảnh tha hương, cảnh sống lưu vong
– Extradite: Dẫn độ
– Extradition: Sự dẫn độ
– Expatriate: Đày biệt xứ
– Deport: Trục xuất, đày đi
– Deportation: Sự trục xuất
Các ví dụ
– He was banished (from his homeland) for life.
– They exiled Napoleon to the island of St Helena.
– The British government attempted to extradite the suspects from Belgium.
– He was extradited from France to Britain to stand trial for murder.
– He was expatriated on suspicion of spying for the enemy.
– He was convicted of drug offences and deported.
– Years ago, convicted criminals could face deportation to Australia.
Danh từ: Giảm án và (tạm) tha
– Remission: Giảm án (nhờ có hạnh kiểm tốt)
– Commutation of sentence: Giảm án
– Pardon: Sự giải tội
– Amnesty: Lệnh ân xá
– Parole: Lời cam kết
– Probation: Sự thử thách
Các ví dụ
– He got 3 years’ remission (of sentence) for good behaviour.
– There cannot be any remission for him; his crimes were too grave.
– He was granted a pardon after new evidence had proved his innocences.
– The new governor declared a total amnesty for political offenders.
– He was let out of prison for a week on parole to see his sick wife.
– He was on 3 years’ probation.
– The accused was sentenced to one year probation.
Động từ: Liên quan đến hình phạt
– Serve (a sentence): Ở tù, ngồi tù, thụ án
– Parole: Tạm tha
– Commute: Giảm án
– Remmit: Giảm án
– Pardon: Tạm tha, được tha
Các ví dụ
– The prisoner served his sentence and was released.
– He was paroled last week.
– His death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment.
– His sentence was remmited by 3 years for good behaviour.
– He was publicly pardoned for his crimes.
Danh từ: Sự hành hình
– Execution: Sự hành hình
– Boiling to death: Đun vạc dầu
– Breaking wheel: Phanh thây
– Burial alive: Thiêu sống
– Burning: Lên giàn hỏa
– Hanging: Treo cổ
– Decapitation: Chặt/chém đầu
– Falling: Ném từ trên cao xuống đất, ném xuống vực, ném xuống hố
– Flaying: Lột da
– Firing squad: Đội hành quyết, đội xử bắn
– Crucifixion: Sự đóng đinh trên thập tự giá
– The (electric) chair: Ghế điện
– Gallows: Giá Treo cổ
– Garrote: Thắt cổ
– Scaffold: Đoạn đầu đài
– Guillotine: Máy chém.
– Garrotte: Thắt cổ
– Gas chamber: Buồng hơi ngạt
– Immurement: Giam đói khát trong ngục
– Impalement: Đóng cọc qua người
– Lethal injection: Tiêm thuốc độc
– Harakiri/seppuku [Nhật]: Sự mổ bụng tự sát
– Disembowelment: Mổ bụng
– Dismemberment: Chặt tay, chặt chân và các bộ phận cơ thể
– Electrocution: Lên ghế điện
– Poisoning: Cho uống thuốc độc
– Stoning: Ném đá
Các ví dụ
– She faced execution by hanging for murder.
– Over 200 executions were carried out last year.
– She was sentenced to death by hanging.
– He was executed by (a) firing-squad.
– He was sent to the electric chair.
– She faced death by the electric chair.
– It was common to send a man to the gallows for such crimes.
– He paid (the price) for his crime on the gallows.
– You will go to the scaffold if you kill her!
– She went to the guillotine in the French revolution.
– He was sentenced to death by electrocution.
– He has been sentenced to death by lethal injection.
– He died in the gas chamber.
Động từ: Hành hình
– Execute: Hành hình
– Hang: Treo cổ
– Behead: Chặt/chém đầu
– Guillotine: Sử dụng máy chém với (ai)
– Decapitate: Chặt đầu
– Crucify: Đóng đinh trên thập tự giá
Các ví dụ
– He was executed for treason.
– They executed murderers in those days.
– They carried the execution at dawn.
– In those days a man could be hanged by the neck until dead.
– The executioner beheaded the prisoner with an axe.
– The man was guillotined.
– The prisoners were all decapitated.